Student Ramuel Mendoza Raagas  for Teaching Fellow Ron Newburgh, Ph.D. 

Physics E1b Electromagnetism  PreLab for Experiment #4: Geometric Optics  Spring Term 2003 

Not every sneaking in of light within a narrow gap is a matter of wave optics. Diffraction is not the only goodie we get out of light's invaginazation into a teeneyweenie channel occupied only by ordinary air. Ray optics A camera need not have glass or similar solid substance for a lens. Although "camera" may be etymologically related to chamber, the lighttightchamber is not necessarily `. My formula laterak magnification is 1_ maginification is heightimage / height of object ; The object is Height is measured not from a groundup perspective, but as plying both ways perpendicularly to the spatial axis jutting from the pupil of my eye to infinity with orientation of such axis being the normal ray from
Light is a traveller. Its speed can't be . 2. Yep. What i'ms seeing is upsiode down, not in the way I had first thought where the pencil's triangular lead tip would face caudally while I hold it upright. The invertedness was achieved when the shadow of the pencil between pinhole and eye approached from the opposite lateral orientation from that out of which I was tugging the pencil from. ).
Whereas capacitance, as much as inductance, is a key player in the defense against current (reactance is what either provides the root of conjunction of two squares: the first being that of the twicerelevant resistance and the second being the mutuallydisruptive reactance contributions angularvelocitymultiplied inductance and the inverselyresembling capacitance.
Our oscilloscope must be gently dialsteered to maintain the fine quality of a Four Volt peaktopeak amplitude output.
X_{C} units  = 

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X_{C} units  = 

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Frequency f (Hz) (in Hertz)  X_{L}=  2pfL  inductive reactance  

0 Hertz  0 Whms  
1 Hertz  6.3 microWhms  10 Hz  15,915  1x10^{n} Hz n = nonnegative integer/whole number between zero and six  1.59155x10^{5n} W  
2 Hertz  13 microW  79,577 W (around eighty kiloW Ohms  20 Hz  7,957.7 around eight kiloW Ohms  2x10^{n} Hz  7.9577x10^{4n} W 
3 Hertz  19 microW  thirty (30) Hz  5,305.2 around fivepointthree kiloW Ohms  3x10^{n} Hz  5.3052x10^{4n} W  
4 Hz  25 mW  40 Hz  3978.9 W about four kiloW  4x10^{n} Hz  3.9789x10^{4n} W  
5 Hz  31 mW  W  
6 Hz  38 mW  
7 Hz  44 mW  
8 Hz  50 mW  
9 Hz  57 mW  9x10^{n} Hz  5.7x10^{n5} W 
When we refer to either a capacitor or an inductor as being a "short" for a certain orientation of frequency (as the kind of thing we get Urone's Figure 22.44(b), where the capacitor shorts out high frequencies from a lefthand "blackbox" circuit to ground, so as to deprive them from getting to the righthand circuit), we would like to think of the component as, in effect, causing a short circuit (as contrasted to an open circuit) dishing off to ground a certain quality of wavefrequqency being fed into a circuit in which it has been installed.
What a fuse is to current, a nonresistor reactancecomponent is to frequency, and yet inductors and capacitors are ministers of a taller order against frequency extremities when compared to the footsoliders that are fuses, which are like bees that sting to kill audacious uprisings of current, only to themselves ending out used up.
Consulting Tipler (Chapter 31 Section 3 page 962 Volume 2, Physics, Freeman), we find that the capacitor is indeed a short for high frequencies. The inductor shorts out both direct current and lowfrequency alternating currents. This summary goes well with calculations of reactance. A capacitor becomes an open (rather than short) circuit with low frequencies that bend the reactance calculation's denominator so low that the numerator's mere value of one can end up translating into great achievements of reactance making the capacitor a dead end to the alternating current.
10 Hertz  15,915 like sixteen kiloohms  W Ohms 
200 Hz  795.77 W  
300 Hz  530.52 W  
400 Hz  397.89 W 
1000 Hertz  W Ohms  
10000 Hertz  W Ohms  
100000 Hertz  W Ohms  
10000000 Hertz  W Ohms 
100 Hertz  W Ohms  
500 Hertz  W Ohms  
1000 Hertz  W Ohms  
10000 Hertz  W Ohms  
100000 Hertz  W Ohms  
10000000 Hertz  W Ohms 