Student Ramuel Mendoza Raagas for Teaching Fellow Ron Newburgh, Ph.D.

Physics E-1b
Pre-Lab for Experiment #4:
Geometric Optics
Spring Term 2003
Submitted April 4, 2003
  1. Hypotheses:


    Not every sneaking in of light within a narrow gap is a matter of wave optics. Diffraction is not the only goodie we get out of light's invaginazation into a teeney-weenie channel occupied only by ordinary air. Ray optics A camera need not have glass or similar solid substance for a lens. Although "camera" may be etymologically related to chamber, the light-tight-chamber is not necessarily `. My formula laterak magnification is 1_ maginification is heightimage / height of object ; The object is Height is measured not from a ground-up perspective, but as plying both ways perpendicularly to the spatial axis jutting from the pupil of my eye to infinity with orientation of such axis being the normal ray from

    Light is a traveller. Its speed can't be . 2. Yep. What i'ms seeing is upsiode down, not in the way I had first thought where the pencil's triangular lead tip would face caudally while I hold it upright. The invertedness was achieved when the shadow of the pencil between pinhole and eye approached from the opposite lateral orientation from that out of which I was tugging the pencil from. ).

    Whereas capacitance, as much as inductance, is a key player in the defense against current (reactance is what either provides--- the root of conjunction of two squares: the first being that of the twice-relevant resistance and the second being the mutually-disruptive reactance contributions angular-velocity-multiplied inductance and the inversely-resembling capacitance.

  2. A series of three procedure-components
    with parallel methodologies
      1. function generator (the sinusoidal agent designated on the left hand of all this lab's schematic circuit diagrams)
      2. oscilloscope with 10x probe
    • ruler
        compact disc
      1. pin-hole camera
      2. a forty-four (44 mH) milliHenry inductor
    • gator clips to clamp on bus bar (which serves as ground) as well as right before and after the voltage drops IR, Q/C and Ld2Q/dt2 cause by the above trio of breadboard components
    Procedure reactivate the previous experiment's pinhole camera Open up a compact disc case with disk still stuck contained in it. Don't remove to CD. it's quite enough that the CD's painted surface is exposed, Make the loaded, opened plastic CD case stand like a corner for light

    Our oscilloscope must be gently dial-steered to maintain the fine quality of a Four Volt peak-to-peak amplitude output.

      1. 9. d =n * l / sin q
        12. 680 megabytes = 1024 kilobytes * 680 * = 1024 * 1024 * 680 bytes = 1024 * 1024 * 680 * 8 bits = 5, 704, 253, 440 bits = around 5.7 ; 1 byte = 8 bits 13.The uncertainty is of an order + or - 1.30 billion bits
        14. Does the number [to be seen in lab]?
      2. Without a doubt, the units of XC are W hms, as may be shown as follows...
        XC units =


        frequency = a # of cycles per second

        6.2832·(a/second)·(b (milli/micro/pico-)Farads)
        Capacitance = b # of (milli/micro/pico-)Farads
        XC units =

        6.2831853...·(ab) Farads

        as 1 Volt = 1 Joule per Coulomb

        6.28..·(ab) Coulomb2
        C = b # of (milli/micro/pico-)Farads
      3. Inductive reactance calculations follow...
        f (Hz)
        (in Hertz)
        XL= 2pfL inductive
        0 Hertz0 Whms
        1 Hertz6.3 micro-Whms10 Hz15,9151x10n Hz
        n = non-negative
        number between
        zero and six
        1.59155x105-n W
        2 Hertz13 micro-W79,577 W
        (around eighty
        kilo-W Ohms
        20 Hz7,957.7
        around eight
        kilo-W Ohms
        2x10n Hz7.9577x104-n W
        3 Hertz19 micro-Wthirty
        (30) Hz
        around five-point-three
        kilo-W Ohms
        3x10n Hz5.3052x104-n W
        4 Hz25 mW40 Hz3978.9 W
        about four
        4x10n Hz3.9789x104-n W
        5 Hz31 mWW
        6 Hz38 mW
        7 Hz44 mW
        8 Hz50 mW
        9 Hz57 mW9x10n Hz5.7x10n-5 W
      4. Around 1550 Hertz would work well for the RC ciruci9te. Around 361.7 Hertz woumight be good for the LR circuite.m Allin all, a range spanning from 500 to 200 hertz freequency would give an ample allowance for resalsts we;dwatch out for./
      5. 758.74 Hertz
      6. One Hundred (100) W hms
      7. Forty (40 mA) milliamperes
        please click to get to source of formula pic

    Lab Proper


    When we refer to either a capacitor or an inductor as being a "short" for a certain orientation of frequency (as the kind of thing we get Urone's Figure 22.44(b), where the capacitor shorts out high frequencies from a left-hand "black-box" circuit to ground, so as to deprive them from getting to the right-hand circuit), we would like to think of the component as, in effect, causing a short circuit (as contrasted to an open circuit) dishing off to ground a certain quality of wave-frequqency being fed into a circuit in which it has been installed.

    What a fuse is to current, a non-resistor reactance-component is to frequency, and yet inductors and capacitors are ministers of a taller order against frequency extremities when compared to the foot-soliders that are fuses, which are like bees that sting to kill audacious uprisings of current, only to themselves ending out used up.

    Consulting Tipler (Chapter 31 Section 3 page 962 Volume 2, Physics, Freeman), we find that the capacitor is indeed a short for high frequencies. The inductor shorts out both direct current and low-frequency alternating currents. This summary goes well with calculations of reactance. A capacitor becomes an open (rather than short) circuit with low frequencies that bend the reactance calculation's denominator so low that the numerator's mere value of one can end up translating into great achievements of reactance--- making the capacitor a dead end to the alternating current.

  3. Conclusion

    10 Hertz15,915
    like sixteen kiloohms
    W Ohms
    200 Hz795.77 W
    300 Hz530.52 W
    400 Hz397.89 W
    1000 HertzW Ohms
    10000 HertzW Ohms
    100000 HertzW Ohms
    10000000 HertzW Ohms
    100 HertzW Ohms
    500 HertzW Ohms
    1000 HertzW Ohms
    10000 HertzW Ohms
    100000 HertzW Ohms
    10000000 HertzW Ohms