SPC Ramuel Mendoza Raagas for Biology E-1a

    Problem Set
    1. How can we expect hexadecane to be a team player in biochemistry when it's too nonpolar? The structure of hexadecane is more becoming of a fuel to be burnt for mechano-industrial use. Palmitic acid, on the other hand, has a terminal COOH functional group, which allows for its cellular functionality as an organic acid.
      1. (ii) is more likely to occur in cells.
      2. This is a hydrocarbon, a four-carbon chain with a methyl group attached.
      3. This is an amino acid. I myself have lots of these in my body.
  1. Cysteine has got an amine group, a carboxyl and a sulfyl.
    Glucosamine has got an aldehyde group, an amine group, a hydroxyl and a methanol group.
  2. Fatty acid is the most polar. It is so polar that it tends to hook up with a glycerol.
  3. Linolenic acid has the lowest melting point because it has two double bonds, illustrated even in the Chem 2 Organic Chemistry textbook.
    1. "Partial hydrogenation" (also known as brush hydrogenation) chemically hardens oils for their room temperature state.
    2. Its oil was far more fluid.
    3. It increases plasticity of the oil. Reference used:

      http://www.cyberparent.com/nutrition/hydrogenated1.htm

    1. Using the same kind of condensation reaction allows for the same enzyme to be used (be it a polymerase or a dehydrogenase).
    2. Water is widely available. All other biomolecules are orders of magnitude behind the quantity of water that is present in most living organisms. Viruses are not living things per se, because they are not hydrated enough.
  4. 6.
      6.
    1. Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.
    2. Such Removal of water is designated as a condensation reaction.
    1. 17.
    2. Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.
    3. The cell wall is found in both bacterial and plant cells.
    4. Microtubules are found in eukaryotic cells such as animal and plant cells.
    5. DNA is found in all living cells. Even non-living elements such as viruses carry DNA.

    Past Exam
  1. A. Each hydrogen atom in ammonia carries a partial positive charge.
  2. C. Only the electrons in the outer valence shell matter.
  3. E. Catabolic pathways are usually coupled with anabolic pathways.
  4. C. Dehydration reactions decrease entropy within a system.
  5. C.
  6. D. A cell lacking the ability to make and secrete glycoproteins would most likely be deficient in its Golgi apparatus and extracellular matrix, but not in its nuclear DNA.
  7. C. Probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system is rough ER to vesicles to Golgi to plasma membrane.
  8. D
  9. E
  10. C
  11. A
  12. C
  13. E 6.
      6.
    1. Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.
    2. Such Removal of water is designated as a condensation reaction.
    1. 17.
    2. Chloroplasts are found only in plant cells.
    3. The cell wall is found in both bacterial and plant cells.
    4. Microtubules are found in eukaryotic cells such as animal and plant cells.
    5. DNA is found in all living cells. Even non-living elements such as viruses carry DNA.